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The 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition


History / Pre-Planning

This is but a short introduction to the precursors and environments that set into motion the events and circumstances that led to arguably the greatest World event to date.  More detailed information can be accessed by reading about the stories of the people who took part in the politics and planning itself.

International expositions can trace their origins to the Great Exhibition of The Works of Industry of all Nations held in London in 1851.

Each exhibition held after that set out to be larger and more spectacular then its predecessor.  Chicago, which would eventually be granted the honor and responsibility of hosting the 1893 Exposition was no stranger to expositions or conventions.  In 1847 the National River and Harbor Convention was held in Chicago which attracted new investors to the city.  After the 1860 Wigwam in Chicago, which launched the presidency of Abraham Lincoln, nominating conventions became a regular happening.  In 1873, just two years following the Great Fire, Chicago hosted annual fairs in the Inter-State Exposition Building which was razed to make room for the building which would host the World's Congress Auxiliary during the 1893 Expo and would later become the current home of the Chicago Art Institute.

Where did the idea of a grand exposition celebrating the 400th Anniversary of Columbus's voyage to the "New World" come from?  The jury is pretty much still out on this one and to be honest how will we ever know what ideas were NOT recorded for the use of history buffs everywhere?  However, what we do know is that the concept may have originated as early as the Centennial Fair of 1876.  In 1882 there were three instances that occurred at roughly the same time.  In early 1882, The Baltimore Sun made the assertion that a celebration of the discovery of the New World and an international exposition would make a great combination.  In February of 1882, Dr. Carlos Zaremba, a mexican citizen, made it known at the Cooper Institute of New York his idea of an international exposition celebrating the discovery of the New World to be held in Mexico City.  Also in February of 1882, a letter from Dentist A.W. Harlan was printed in the Chicago Times expressing the same idea however naming Chicago as the most appropriate site. 

Zaremba continued talks in Washington D.C. as well as in Chicago catching the ear of Alexander D. Anderson in Washington and George R. Davis in Chicago.  Davis who was a U.S. Representative for Illinois would eventually become Director-General of the World's Columbian Commission.  Through the efforts and personal expenditure of money by Anderson a local Board of Promotion was formed which eventually became a national Board of which Anderson was appointed Secretary.  In June of 1888 a bill was introduced in Congress entitled, "A Bill To Provide for a Permanent Exposition of the Three Americas at the National Capital in Honor of the Four Hundredth Anniversary of the Discovery of America".  A grand idea!  At least Washington thought so.  Other cities were not so happy that Washinton D.C.  had already been chosen for a location and began to lobby for their individual cities. 

According to Thomas B. Bryan, who would later become a Commissioner-At-Large of the Expo as well as Vice President of the World's Congress Auxiliary, a Chicago newspaper publisher named J.W. Scott had proposed the idea of a committee to lobby for the interests of Chicago be formed.  He proposed that idea to then Chicago mayor DeWitt C. Cregier.  On August 1, 1889 a Committee of Chicago's business, political and industry leaders met in Chicago City Council Chambers.  After the meeting, the resolutions that were adopted were telegraphed all over the country. 

The four main contenders for location were Washington D.C., St. Louis, New York, and Chicago.  It was decided that the cities would send delegates to Washington to argue their case before Congress.  St. Louis was the first to fall by the wayside.  Washington D.C. could not come up with enough private capital.  New York had difficulties with providing a large enough location due to the opposition of New Yorkers to using Central Park.  Chicago's delegates led by Thomas B. Bryan impressed Congress with its arguments of ample locations, unparalleled transportation resources, large amounts of private capital and its location as the virtual center of the United States at that time.  On February 25, 1890, a joint resolution selected Chicago as the host city and President William Harrison approved of it on April 28, 1890. 

Two organizing bodies were immediately formed to oversee the planning, financing and execution.  The Chicago Corporation which was formed to lobby for Chicago in Congress elected a Board of Directors, issued stock and elected Harlow N. Higinbotham, a partner of Marshall Field, its President.  The World's Columbian Commission was made up of 2 commissioners from each state and territory appointed by President Harrison.  U.S. Representative George R. Davis from Illinois was its Director General and Thomas Palmer from Detroit, MI its President. 

These brave souls had to bring from dream to reality the greatest international exposition ever known and had just over two years to do it!


Badger, Reid. 1979. The great American fair: the World's Columbian Exposition & American culture. Chicago: N. Hall.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 1893. The book of the fair; an historical and descriptive presentation of the world's science, art, and industry, as viewed through the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, designed to set forth the display made by the Congress of Nations, of human achievement in material form, so as the more effectually to illustrate the progress of mankind in all the departments of civilized life. Chicago: The Bancroft Company. 

Bolotin, Norm, and Christine Laing. 2002. The World's Columbian Exposition: the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Appelbaum, Stanley. 1980. The Chicago World's Fair of 1893: a photographic record, photos from the collections of the Avery Library of Columbia University and the Chicago Historical Society. New York: Dover Publications.

Chicago Daily Tribune, May 13, 1990, Gallery of Local Celebrities, No. XVI Thomas B. Bryan, pg. 39


Creating The Expo

There was not much time to pull this Expo off and the reputations of Chicago and really the entire country were on the line.  Daniel H. Burnham of the prestigious firm of Burnham & Root was named Chief of Construction with his partner, John W. Root, as consulting architect but before any dirt could be turned the financing of the Expo had to be addressed. 

The corporation immediately started subscribing individuals and businesses up as Expo Stockholders with no guarantee of any financial return on their investment and in a very short time had sold over $5 million dollars worth! The city of Chicago itself issued bonds amounting to another $5 million.  Other sources of income involved selling licensing fees and rights of sponsorship, a commemorative half dollar and quarter issued by the U.S. Mint sold as souvenirs and even the value of salvaged building materials such as steel and lumber that would result from the demolition of the temporary buildings following the close of the Expo.  The largest single source of revenue was the paid admissions that were initially estimated at a total of 15 million visitors at .50 cents each or $7.5 million.  The actual attendance was closer to 27 million visitors!  It seemed that the Expo was, at least on paper, financially feasible and about $10 million was immediately available so Chicago was off to the races!

On January 10, 1891, a dinner was held a the University Club of Chicago, by the Columbian Exposition Grounds and Buildings Committee for the Board of Architects and to honor the out of town architects who had been shown the Jackson Park site earlier in the day.  Present at the dinner were Lyman J. Gage, Board of Directors of the Exposition, Richard M. Hunt, President of the American Association of Architects, Frederick Law Olmsted, Henry S. Codman, Mayor Cregier, Chairman of the Committee, visiting architects Mr. George B. Post; New York, Mr. Van Brunt; Kansas City, Mr. Peabody from Peabody and Stearns; Boston, Chicago architects D. Adler, Henry Ives Cobb, S.S. Beman, Louis H. Sullivan, W.L.B. Jenney and F. M. Whitehouse.  There were also members of the Grounds and Buildings Committee - Charles Schwab, E.S. Pike, E.T. Jeffery, Owen F. Aldis, and R.A. Waller.  Others present were consulting engineer A. Gottlieb, Chief of Construction, Daniel Burnham and consulting architect John W. Root. 

After the architects toured the Jackson Park site they made their way to Burnham & Root's offices on the 11th floor of their Rookery Building and reviewed plans.  The dinner started at 8pm and after dinner their were no official speeches or ceremony of any kind. 

The dinner was a significant event for Burnham's partner Root not only because the dinner was held on his birthday but also because tragedy would strike five days later when on January 15, 1891 at the age of 41, John Wellborn Root died from an aggressive case of pneumonia.  It was a terrible blow to Burnham and to the other planners of the Expo. 

On January 27, 1891 the first physical movements toward making the fair a reality took place however not in a location that most would think about today.  Early that morning three or four men from the contracting firm of Edmunds & Hay, showed up at the Lake-Front Park at the intersection of Harrison St. and Michigan Ave.  They had in their possession wooden pegs, at least one hammer, and a theodolite.  After a quick survey, the boss looked at one of the workers, pointed at the ground and said, "Drive it there, Jim."  Jim, assuming his name was really Jim, grabbed one of the wooden pegs, tapped it lightly two or three times and than with a full swing of the sledgehammer drove the first stake in the frozen ground.  They were there to survey the location of the first of the buildings which was to be merely a temporary headquarters for the Department of Building and Construction.  This little group caused quite a stir among the men of Chicago looking for work and in a very short period of time there were close to 1,000 men ready and willing to start on the work of building but there would be no turning of dirt going on.  In a couple hours the men drove a total of 10 wooden pegs and by noon the anti-climatic first work of the World's Fair had been completed and the men left.  That still didn't stop a couple of hundred men to loiter around the stakes until almost five o'clock in hopes of being put to work but no work was to be had just yet.

                     Daniel Burnham circa 1890

Chief Burnham was in charge of, among other things, putting together the architectural talent necessary to bring the Columbian Expo to reality and wasted no time.  At the same time the location of the Expo itself was being argued about.  Initially it seemed that the Expo would be split between Jackson Park and Lake Park (now Grant Park).  At first, the thought was to have what was then called, The Decorative Arts Building, The Woman's Building, The Music-Hall and the building for electrical displays inside of Lake Park.  By February of 1891. the architects had already been chosen for three of these Lake-Front buildings.   The Decorative Arts building would be designed using sketches by John Root that were currently in the Burnham & Root offices at the Rookery Building, the Music-Hall was initially going to be given to the firm of Adler and Sullivan but they were eventually given the honor of the Transportation Building in Jackson Park replaced by the firm of Bauer and Hill, and the building for electrical displays was to be designed by the firm of Treat and Folz. 

It was soon apparent that the Lake-Front location would not work for two major reasons.  One major reason was the fact that the Illinois Central Tracks would have to be removed or moved underground to accommodate the location and it turned out that the Illinois Central was not in agreement.  In addition, the residents along Michigan Avenue were none too happy with having the Fair so close to home.  Without the cooperation of both, the attempt was futile. 

The renowned landscape Architect, Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Henry Codman were brought in and after reviewing a number of sites the decision was made that Jackson Park, which was at that time 6 miles south of the city and pretty much not much more than a desolate, sandy, bog, would be the location.  Olmsted saw landscapes as painters would see a blank canvas and he saw a wonderfully blank canvas using the the Grand Lake Michigan as its focal point.


There would be 14 Great Buildings of the Expo and interestingly enough not one designed by Burnham himself.  There would be:  The Administration Building by Richard M. Hunt of New York, Agricultural Building by McKim, Mead & White of New York, Anthropological Building by Charles B. Atwood of Chicago, Electricity Building by Van Brunt & Howe, Kansas City, Fisheries Building by Henry Ives Cobb of Chicago, Forestry Building by Charles B. Atwood of Chicago, Horticultural Building by Jenney & Mundie of Chicago, Machinery Hall by Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building by George B. Post of New York, Mines and Mining Building by S.S. Beman of Chicago, Transportation Building by Adler and Sullivan of Chicago, U.S. Government Building by Willoughby J. Edbrooke of Washington D.C. and Woman's Building by Sophia G. Hayden of Boston.

Work on the Jackson Park site began on the morning of February 11, 1891 by Dennis Madden and a group of 30 Italian workers.  Madden was a foreman for McArthur Bros. which was the contractor awarded the project of dredging, draining and grading the Jackson Park site.  The Italian workers were supplied by a local agency.

The men gathered at the east side of the park along the lakeshore at about the point where Sixty-Sixth Street would have been or about where the southeast corner of the Forestry Building would eventually come to rest.  They were to build a ditch five feet wide and run several hundred yards west to drain a location at that point into the lake. 

The first worker, who because of his anonymity could represent the immigrant forefather of all immigrant Italian families who called Chicago home at the end of the 19th century, raised his pick and swung it three times before making a small hole in the frozen earth.  The other 29 Italians followed suit and the transformation of Jackson Park had begun.

The laborers lived in somewhat primitive conditions in tents that were owned by the contractors and situated in a small patch of wood in the center of the park.  There were also several small pavilions that were boarded up and used as dining facilities. 

The work of building the Expo was heavily dependent on manual labor and at the height of construction it is estimated that up to 40,000 workers at one time were actively involved in moving iron, dirt or lumber.  The magnitude of construction and the speed at which it progressed was a Fair Wonder all its own and the fair managers, always diligent as to possible sources of revenue, began charging .25 per person to view the construction and thousands were glad to pay it. 

Initially the Great Buildings of the fair were to be built of stone but the planners soon figured out that it would not be financially feasible to do so.  They borrowed a concept from the French that was used in the Paris Exposition of 1889.  The buildings would be built of a wood frame with iron used for domes and coated with a substance called Staff.  Staff was invented in France in 1876 and was a mixture of cement and gypsum.  It could be molded to mimic almost any stone and could be poured into molds hardening within 30 minutes or so.  To make the substance more durable, cloth or fibers such as hemp or jute could be added to the mold before pouring.  It was fast, was projected to save the Exposition Corporation about $4 million and could be easily painted any color.  It was also the substance that most of the statuary of the fair was made.  While the people behind the scenes of the fair knew the buildings were temporary, visitors would see gleaming buildings of stone.

There were many obstacles during the building process including labor issues, material shortages, political intrigue, financial stresses and not least of all the brutal Chicago winters.  The building process was also a dangerous one for the laborers with 18 fatalities in 1891 alone.  Olmsted would also lose his partner, Henry Sargent Codman, on January 13, 1893 almost 2 years to the day of Daniel Burnham losing his partner John Root.  Codman died in Chicago at the age of 28 as the result of an operation for an attack of appendicitis.

The peninsula in the center of Jackson Park was converted into a man-made island that still exists today and day by day construction, sculpting and planting continued up to and well beyond the Dedication Ceremonies.



Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 1893. The book of the fair; an historical and descriptive presentation of the world's science, art, and industry, as viewed through the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, designed to set forth the display made by the Congress of Nations, of human achievement in material form, so as the more effectually to illustrate the progress of mankind in all the departments of civilized life. Chicago: The Bancroft Company. 

Bolotin, Norm, and Christine Laing. 2002. The World's Columbian Exposition: the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Appelbaum, Stanley. 1980. The Chicago World's Fair of 1893: a photographic record, photos from the collections of the Avery Library of Columbia University and the Chicago Historical Society. New York: Dover Publications.

Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb 4, 1891, To Plan The Buildings, pg. 6

Chicago Daily Tribune, January 28, 1891, The First Stake is Driven, pg. 3

Chicago Daily Tribune, March 20, 1891, Millions Will Be Saved, pg. 1

Chicago Daily Tribune, February 12, 1891, Made a Hole In The Ground, pg. 3

World's Columbian Exposition, and Moses P. Handy. 1893. The official directory of the World's Columbian exposition, May 1st to October 30th, 1893. A reference book of exhibitors and exhibits; of the officers and members of the World's Columbian commission, the world's Columbian exposition and the board of lady managers; a complete history of the exposition. Together with accurate descriptions of all state, territorial, foreign, departmental and other buildings and exhibits, and general information concerning the fair. Chicago: W.B. Conkey company.



Opening Ceremonies

The weather in Chicago in the days just prior to the May 1st opening day ceremonies was somewhat less than inviting.  The wind blew raw and cold on mostly overcast days.   I am sure that after two years of political, financial and logistical struggles the one thing that everyone hoped for on opening day would be at the very least the cooperation of Chicago’s all too often uncooperative weather patterns.

On Friday, April 28th the special train carrying our nation’s “Liberty Bell” and escorted by Philadelphia’s Mayor Stuart crossed Chicago’s borders amid a flurry of fireworks set off by the Philadelphia delegation from inside the train and continued until its arrival at the Union depot. 

On Saturday, April 29th is when the preparations for opening day were truly set into motion.  The first dignitaries to arrive were the living descendants of Christopher Columbus headed by the Duke of Veragua (short title) and his family.

W.C.E. Opening Day May 1, 1893


The Duke and his family were given a royal reception at the Auditorium Hotel and Mayor Carter Harrison presented them with The “Freedom of  the City” with accompanying key.  The “Freedom” was a leather bound proclamation of the Chicago City Council commemorating the arrival of Don Cristoval Colon de la Cerda y Gante, the Duke of Veragua, his brother, Don Fernando Colon de la Cerda, Marquis of Barboles, and Don Cristoval Colon y Aguilera and their families. 

The book was inside of a case of olive wood which was imported from Jerusalem and adorned with heavy silver corners legs and hinges.  Inside the cover of the book was a golden key tied with ribbons of the colors of the United States and Spain.  The key was engraved with the Duke’s full title and date.

The three dignitaries were also given individual silver passes which would admit them and any persons accompanying them for the duration of the Exposition.  The lettering was in red, yellow and black enamel with the Columbus coat of arms enameled in the upper right corner.    The passes each read (with the exception of the name):


This will admit

Don Cristoval Colon de la Cerda, Duke of Veragua

and whoever may accompany him to the grounds and buildings of the World’s Columbian Exposition at all times.

Thomas W. Palmer, President W.C.C.

H.N. Higinbotham, President, W.C.E.

George R. Davis, Director-General




Don Cristobal Colon de la Cerda y Gante

(1837 - 1910)


President Grover Cleveland’s train was the next to arrive and was met at the Union Depot by a full military and police escort as well as 25 separate carriages to transport the President and his delegation to their rooms at the Lexington Hotel.    There was no place for politics as usual within this delegation and reception committee and Republicans and Democrats alike took part.

Both the Liberty Bell and President Cleveland were being paraded through the streets of Chicago at the same time although along different paths until by chance both parties crossed paths outside the Lexington Hotel and the attention of the onlookers was split between the animate and inanimate icons of the country and then, as if on cue,  the Chicago skies erupted in a Spring downpour. 

The Monday morning of May 1, 1893 was , as days previous, was chilly and overcast but not raining.  By 7:30 am the crowds were already forming outside of the Lexington Hotel and by 9:00am there was nearly ten thousand people crammed together to try to get a glimpse of the Presidential  and Spanish dignitaries.    

The carriage that would carry the President was owned by Cyrus H. McCormick and was of the highest caliber of private carriage.  The two carriages that were to carry the Duke and his family were owned by Potter Palmer and were of a slightly less but not much less quality and adornment.

At precisely 9:05 am the military escort was called to attention and the procession of 76 carriages started on their journey south on Michigan Avenue toward Jackson Park.  All along the route the procession was met with cheering of citizens and all types of bunting, flag and banner.

Meanwhile in Jackson Park crowds had been arriving and gathering long before President Cleveland left the comfort of his hotel room.  Streams of visitors had been exiting yellow express trains of the Illinois Central and crowding the entry gates at Sixtieth Street.  Stony Island Avenue was equally as busy with fair-goers unloading from the Elevated Railway.

Gradually this “seething mass of humanity” gathered in front of the grandstand that had been set up to run the length of the east side of the golden-domed Administration Building.  Eventually the crowds spilled over from the Grand Basin onto the bridges and promenades.

The crowd was overwhelming and long before any V.I.P.s made their way to their proper positions on the grandstand the crowd had pushed through the lines established by the Columbian Guard.  A nervous young military office ordered a group of guards to draw their swords but it didn’t deter the situation.  This same officer called for a detachment of Cavalry to press its way into the crowd but even that could not re-establish the boundaries around the grandstand.   Women were fainting, the crowds were anxious.


Director General W.C.E. George R. Davis

(1840 - 1899)


The pressure seemed to ease somewhat when the first dignitaries walked up the narrow stairway into their assigned seats on the grandstand.  There were seats for several thousand persons on the grandstand and dignitaries consisted of foreign delegations from Spain, Germany, Russia, Japan, England, Korea and many others.  There were delegations from the individual States as well as representatives from the Worlds Columbian Exposition Corporation, National Commission, Board of Lady Managers and Chicago City government.  

There came across the multitudes a sense of stillness and then an uproar that spread across the Grand Basin that seemed to shake the very foundation of the Administration Building.  Director General Davis of the W.C.E. walked across the stairway alongside President Cleveland.  Behind them were President T.W. Palmer of the National Commission, President H.N. Higinbotham of the W.C.E., Vice President Stevenson, Secretary of State Gresham, Secretary of the Treasury Carlisle, Secretary of the Navy Herbert, Secretary of the Interior Smith, and Secretary of Agriculture Julius Sterling Morton.

Director Davis escorted President Cleveland to the front of the platform.  They stopped briefly at the table upon which the gold and ivory telegraph key sat atop a pedestal adorned with the colors of America and Spain.  He seemed to be explaining the device to the President who gave him an affirmative nod of understanding.  The President then place his hat on his head and sat at the front of the platform. 

Just then another round of cheers started as the Spanish dignitaries and descendants of Christopher Columbus (Duke of Veragua and family) took their seats next to President Cleveland.

At precisely 11:00 am, Director Davis stood up and walked to the front of the platform and with a raise of his hand a silence came over the crowd. 

Davis announced, “According to the official program for today’s exercises, I have the pleasure of introducing the Rev. W.H. Milburn, chaplain of the senate of the United States, who will offer the invocation.”

As the blind chaplain delivered the invocation every hat was removed and every head was bowed.At the conclusion of the prayer, Davis introduced Miss Jessie Couthoui who stepped to the front of the platform and recited the poem, “The Prophecy”, written by W.A. Croffut.

After the poem there was a great cheer and then the orchestra played the overture “Rienzi “ by Wagner after which Director Davis rose and gave praise and thanks to the many number of people responsible for bringing the dream of the World’s Columbian Exposition into reality.  Davis ended his oration with a short introduction. 

“And now, Mr. President, in this central city of this great republic on the continent discovered by Columbus, whose distinguished descendants are present as the honored guests of our nation, it only remains for you, if in your opinion the Exposition here presented is commensurate in dignity with what the world should expect of our great country, to direct that it shall be opened to the public, and when you touch this magic key the ponderous machinery will start in its revolution, and the activities of the Exposition will begin.” 

President Cleveland stood up, removed his silk hat, and looked out over the multitudes before him.  He looked to his right and to his left as the cheers became louder.  His words scarcely occupied 3 minutes and ended thusly:

“We have made and here gathered together objects of use and beauty, the products of American skill and invention; but we have also made men who rule themselves.  It is an exalted mission in which we and our guests from other lands are engaged, as we cooperate in the inauguration of an enterprise devoted to human enlightenment; and in the undertaking we here enter upon, we exemplify in the noblest sense the brotherhood of nations.  Let us hold fast to the meaning that underlies this ceremony, and let us not lose the impressiveness of this moment.  As by a touch the machinery that gives life to this vast Exposition is set in motion, so at the same instant let our hopes and aspirations awaken forces which in all time to come shall influence the welfare, the dignity and the freedom of mankind”.

President Grover Cleveland

(1837 - 1908)


The President’s hand was about to touch the button of a device similar in almost every way to a standard telegraph key.  The main difference is that while a standard telegraph key is made of brass with a rubber button, this key was made of gold with an ivory button and had been manufactured specifically for the purposes of the Columbian Exposition by E.S. Greeley & Co. of New York.  They had loaned this telegraph key to the Exposition for one day only and planned to enjoy it as a unique souvenir of the occasion for years to come.

As President Cleveland’s finger pushed the ivory button it closed a circuit that activated a large Allis Engine and a Worthington Pump.  It also signaled a crew to manually start up the various other engines that supplied power to the fair from Machinery Hall.   

The crowd estimated by reporters of not less than 300,000 witnessed the White City come to life.  Electricity amounting to three times the amount of electricity to run the entire city of Chicago pulsed through the Expo’s underground “veins”.  Enormous fountains spayed colorful jets of water within the Grand Basin as released doves circled overhead.  The cannons, bells and whistles of the various ships afloat in Lake Michigan sounded in joy.  As all of this was going on, the Orchestra could be heard playing “America”, also known as “My Country Tis of Thee”, which was the United State’s de facto national anthem of the time. (The Star Spangled Banner didn’t become our national anthem until 1931)  The singing of the song could be heard spreading far and wide on the grounds of the Fair. 

President Cleveland and select dignitaries were ushered into the third floor of the Administration Building for a luncheon,  the throngs of excited fairgoers made their way to the over 200 buildings across  600 acres, Jane Addams had her purse stolen and the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition  was underway!



Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 1893. The book of the fair; an historical and descriptive presentation of the world's science, art, and industry, as viewed through the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, designed to set forth the display made by the Congress of Nations, of human achievement in material form, so as the more effectually to illustrate the progress of mankind in all the departments of civilized life. Chicago: The Bancroft Company. 

Bolotin, Norm, and Christine Laing. 2002. The World's Columbian Exposition: the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

World's Columbian Exposition. 1893. Columbian Exposition dedication ceremonies memorial. A graphic description of the ceremonies at Chicago, October, 1892, the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. Chicago: Metropolitan Art Engraving & Pub. Co.

Chicago Daily Tribune, May 1, 1893, Pushing The Button, pg. 3




















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